Read e-book online A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton PDF

By Jeffrey Heath

ISBN-10: 3110162857

ISBN-13: 9783110162851

This article provides grammar in English of a language of the Songhay kin of West Africa. The emphasis is on grammatical different types and morphosyntax. issues comprise: focalization and relativization, logophoric pronouns, conjunctions and serial verbs.

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Additional info for A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19)

Sample text

Overlay), z is also fairly common in Arabic loans: azzinaa 'adultery'. 3). η (velar nasal): many cases of phonetic velar nasal [η] are simply surface assimilations of n (or an underspecified nasal) to a following velar stop, as in hiqka 'two' and hin^ ka (pronounced [hirjka]) 'be able to'. Word-final η occurs in most Songhay varieties but normally shows up as Λ in Timbuktu KCh. However, η does occur before vowels in a modest number of lexical items, including rjaa 'eat' and baija 'hippopotamus'.

The most common cases involve ISg ay followed by a stem beginning in such a consonant. The parallel assimilation involving w applies before a labial {p b m f], a combination which is attested but uncommon in the absence of a high-frequency pronoun or grammatical morpheme ending in w. Examples are given in (34), where again the regular transcription shows the underlying form. y ay_cindi [at:Jindi] Ί remain' ayjur [ad^ur] Ί ran' ay_naa [anraj] 'my mother' woy^cindi-foo [wotijindifo:] 'eleven' ("ten-remainder-one") b.

However, it is rather uncommon and it may have been less stable over time than oy. It occurs in deelew 'spark', felew 'be light (in weight)', and hew 'wind, air, smell', dow ~ dew 'sand' fluctuates between ow and ew, for yow ~ yew 'guest' and similar forms with preceding palatal or palatoalveolar, see the end of this section. The diphthongs ey~ay and ow~aw constitute another pair of structurally parallel diphthongs. Each shows neutralization of the opposition between a and the neighboring mid-height vowel closest to the articulation of the coda (e for y, for w).

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A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19) by Jeffrey Heath


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